The Flying Dutchman Wagner Opera
|Der fliegende Holländer|
The Flying Dutchman
|Opera by Richard Wagner|
|Based on||Retelling of Der fliegende Holländer|
by Heinrich Heine
The Flying Dutchman by Albert Pinkham Ryder c.
1887 (Smithsonian American Art Museum). The Flying Dutchman (Dutch: De Vliegende Hollander) is a legendary ghost ship which was said to never be able to make port, doomed to sail the oceans forever. The myth is likely to have originated from the 17th-century Golden Age of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Dutch maritime power. The oldest extant version of the legend has been dated to the late 18th century.
According to the legend, if hailed by another ship, the crew of the Flying Dutchman was said to try to send messages to land, or to people long dead. Reported sightings in the 19th and 20th centuries claimed that the ship glowed with a ghostly light. In ocean lore, the sight of this phantom ship is a portent of doom. View of Table Bay (overlooked by Kaapstad, Dutch Cape Colony) with ships of the Dutch East India Company, c.
In the 17th century, the size of the Dutch merchant fleet probably exceeded the combined fleets of England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Germany.. An 18th-century painting of a VOC ship with Table Mountain in the background, used by navigators as the landmark to sail around southern tip of Africa.
In the Age of Sail, the Brouwer Route, devised by the Dutch navigatorHendrik Brouwer in 1611, greatly reduced the voyage between Cape of Good Hope (Dutch Cape Colony) to Java (Dutch East Indies) from almost 12 months to about 6 months, compared to the previous Arab and Portuguese monsoon route.
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East Indies Company (VOC). The legend of the Flying Dutchman is likely to have originated from the 17th-century golden age of the VOC. The first print reference to the ship appears in Travels in various part of Europe, Asia and Africa during a series of thirty years and upward (1790) by John MacDonald:. The weather was so stormy that the sailors said they saw the Flying Dutchman. The common story is that this Dutchman came to the Cape in distress of weather and wanted to get into harbour but could not get a pilot to conduct her and was lost and that ever since in very bad weather her vision appears.. The next literary reference appears in Chapter VI of A Voyage to Botany Bay (1795) (also known as A Voyage to New South Wales), attributed to George Barrington (1755–1804):[nb 1].
I had often heard of the superstition of sailors respecting apparitions and doom, but had never given much credit to the report; it seems that some years since a Dutch man-of-war was lost off the Cape of Good Hope, and every soul on board perished; her consort weathered the gale, and arrived soon after at the Cape. Having refitted, and returning to Europe, they were assailed by a violent tempest nearly in the same latitude.
In the night watch some of the people saw, or imagined they saw, a vessel standing for them under a press of sail, as though she would run them down: one in particular affirmed it was the ship that had foundered in the former gale, and that it must certainly be her, or the apparition of her; but on its clearing up, the object, a dark thick cloud, disappeared.
Nothing could do away the idea of this phenomenon on the minds of the sailors; and, on their relating the circumstances when they arrived in port, the story spread like wild-fire, and the supposed phantom was called the Flying Dutchman. From the Dutch the English seamen got the infatuation, and there are very few Indiamen, but what has some one on board, who pretends to have seen the apparition.. The next literary reference introduces the motif of punishment for a crime, in Scenes of Infancy (Edinburgh, 1803) by John Leyden (1775–1811):. It is a common superstition of mariners, that, in the high southern latitudes on the coast of Africa, hurricanes are frequently ushered in by the appearance of a spectre-ship, denominated the Flying Dutchman ..
The crew of this vessel are supposed to have been guilty of some dreadful crime, in the infancy of navigation; and to have been stricken with pestilence .. and are ordained still to traverse the ocean on which they perished, till the period of their penance expire.[nb 2]. Thomas Moore (1779–1852) places the vessel in the north Atlantic in his poem Written on passing Dead-man's Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Late in the evening, September, 1804: "Fast gliding along, a gloomy bark / Her sails are full, though the wind is still, / And there blows not a breath her sails to fill." A footnote adds: "The above lines were suggested by a superstition very common among sailors, who call this ghost-ship, I think, 'the flying Dutch-man'." Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832), a friend of John Leyden's, was the first to refer to the vessel as a pirate ship, writing in the notes to Rokeby; a poem (first published December 1812) that the ship was "originally a vessel loaded with great wealth, on board of which some horrid act of murder and piracy had been committed" and that the apparition of the ship "is considered by the mariners as the worst of all possible omens".
According to some sources, 17th-century Dutch captainBernard Fokke is the model for the captain of the ghost ship. Fokke was renowned for the speed of his trips from the Netherlands to Java and was suspected of being in league with the Devil.
The first version of the legend as a story was printed in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine for May 1821, which puts the scene as the Cape of Good Hope. This story introduces the name Captain Hendrick Van der Decken for the captain and the motifs (elaborated by later writers) of letters addressed to people long dead being offered to other ships for delivery, but if accepted will bring misfortune; and the captain having sworn to round the Cape of Good Hope though it should take until the day of judgment.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast, 2 January 1843|
Conductor: Richard Wagner
|The Dutchman||bass-baritone||Johann Michael Wächter|
|Senta, Daland's daughter||soprano||Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient|
|Daland, a Norwegian sea captain||bass||Friedrich Traugott Reinhold|
|Erik, a huntsman||tenor||Carl Risse|
|Mary, Senta's nurse||contralto||Thérèse Wächter|
|Daland's steersman||tenor||Wenzel Bielezizky|
|Norwegian sailors, the Dutchman's crew, young women|
She was an Amsterdam vessel and sailed from port seventy years ago.
- Her master's name was Van der Decken. He was a staunch seaman, and would have his own way in spite of the devil.
- For all that, never a sailor under him had reason to complain; though how it is on board with them nobody knows.
- The story is this: that in doubling the Cape they were a long day trying to weather the Table Bay.
However, the wind headed them, and went against them more and more, and Van der Decken walked the deck, swearing at the wind.
- Just after sunset a vessel spoke him, asking him if he did not mean to go into the bay that night.
- Place: On the coast of Norway
And to be sure, he never did go into that bay, for it is believed that he continues to beat about in these seas still, and will do so long enough. This vessel is never seen but with foul weather along with her.. There have been many reported or alleged sightings in the 19th and 20th centuries. A well-known sighting was by Prince George of Wales, the future King George V. He was on a three-year voyage during his late adolescence in 1880 with his elder brother Prince Albert Victor of Wales and their tutor John Neill Dalton. They temporarily shipped into HMS Inconstant after the damaged rudder was repaired in their original ship, the 4,000-tonne corvette Bacchante. The princes' log (indeterminate as to which prince, due to later editing before publication) records the following for the pre-dawn hours of 11 July 1881, off the coast of Australia in the Bass Strait between Melbourne and Sydney:.
the Flying Dutchman crossed our bows. A strange red light as of a phantom ship all aglow, in the midst of which light the masts, spars and sails of a brig 200 yards distant stood out in strong relief as she came up on the port bow, where also the officer of the watch from the bridge clearly saw her, as did the quarterdeck midshipman, who was sent forward at once to the forecastle; but on arriving there was no vestige nor any sign whatever of any material ship was to be seen either near or right away to the horizon, the night being clear and the sea calm.
Thirteen persons altogether saw her .. the ordinary seaman who had this morning reported the Flying Dutchman fell from the foretopmast crosstrees on to the topgallant forecastle and was smashed to atoms.. Nicholas Monsarrat, the novelist who wrote The Cruel Sea, described the phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean in his unfinished final book "Master Mariner", which was partly inspired by this tale (he lived and worked in South Africa after the war) and the story of the Wandering Jew.
Probably the most credible explanation is a superior mirage or Fata Morgana seen at sea. Book illustration showing superior mirages of two boats. The news soon spread through the vessel that a phantom-ship with a ghostly crew was sailing in the air over a phantom-ocean, and that it was a bad omen, and meant that not one of them should ever see land again.
The captain was told the wonderful tale, and coming on deck, he explained to the sailors that this strange appearance was caused by the reflection of some ship that was sailing on the water below this image, but at such a distance they could not see it.
This appearance in the air is called a mirage. He told a sailor to go up to the foretop and look beyond the phantom-ship. The man obeyed, and reported that he could see on the water, below the ship in the air, one precisely like it.
Just then another ship was seen in the air, only this one was a steamship, and was bottom-upwards, as the captain had said these mirages generally appeared. Soon after, the steamship itself came in sight. The sailors were now convinced, and never afterwards believed in phantom-ships.. Another optical effect known as looming occurs when rays of light are bent across different refractive indices.
This could make a ship just off the horizon appear hoisted in the air.. There is a 20-foot one-design high-performance two-person monohull racing dinghy named the Flying Dutchman (FD). It made its Olympic debut at the 1960 Summer Games competitions in the Gulf of Naples and is still one of the fastest racing dinghies in the world..
The Flying Dutchman has been captured in paintings by Albert Ryder, now in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., and by Howard Pyle, whose painting of the Flying Dutchman is on exhibit at the Delaware Art Museum.
- Efteling Productions made a short movie to introduce the backstory of the Flying Dutchman and Captain 'Willem van der Decken'. Efteling Productions made in 2010 a documentary about the construction of the attraction 'The Flying Dutchman'. Scooby-Doo featured a Flying Dutchman ghost modeled after the illustrator Howard Pyle's 1900 depiction of the character.
"The Flying Dutchman" is both the name of a pirate ghost (a flying Dutchman) and his haunted pirate ship (The Flying Dutchman) in the Nickelodeon animated comedy series SpongeBob SquarePants.
- The former is voiced by Brian Doyle-Murray, and the latter is based on Queen Anne's Revenge.
- Carl Barks wrote and drew a 1959 comic book story where Uncle Scrooge, Donald Duck and Huey, Dewey, and Louie meet the Flying Dutchman. Barks ultimately explains the "flying" ship as an optical illusion.
- In Eiichiro Oda's mangaOne Piece as well as the anime television series, Fishman Vander Decken IX (バンダー・デッケン九世, Bandā Dekken Kyūsei), a descendant of the original Captain Van der Decken, is the Flying Dutchman's current captain who appears as a major villain in the "Fishman Island" arc.
- He is an inversion of the normal legend, being a fish-man who has been cursed to never again be able to swim, as opposed to a human who can never set foot on land..
- In Soul Eater, the Flying Dutchman is the soul of the ghost ship. In the 1967 Spider-Mancartoon episode "Return of the Flying Dutchman" the legend of the Flying Dutchman is used by Spider-Man's enemy Mysterio to frighten villagers and plunder their wealth.
- In 1967, the Flying Dutchman was featured in the Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea episode "Cave of the Dead".
- In a 1959 episode of Rod SerlingsJudgment Night (The Twilight Zone) a cruel and merciless U-Captain that sank an Allied passenger ship in World War II finds himself doomed to forever relive the experience as a "Flying Dutchman" passenger of the torpedoed ship.
- An episode called "The Arrival" (1961, written by Rod Serling) of the television series The Twilight Zone depicts an airplane that arrives at a busy airport.
- The airplane is discovered to have no crew, passengers, or luggage.
At the tail end of the prior episode ("Two"), Rod Serling advertises "The Arrival" as a retelling of the Flying Dutchman tale.
- Millington, Barry, ed. (1992). The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN0-02-871359-1.
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- It also gets a mention in the closing narration of the episode "Death Ship".
- An episode called "Lone Survivor" (1971, written by Rod Serling) of the television series Night Gallery has the story of a Flying Dutchman survivor of the RMS Titanic who because of his cowardice is forever doomed to be picked up by ships that will sink..first the RMS Lusitania in 1915 and then by the SS Andrea Doria in 1956.
- In a 1976 episode of Land of the Lost, the Marshalls discover the captain of a mysterious ship that appears in "the mist".
- Later in the episode, it is discovered that the ship is the Flying Dutchman. In the 1982 Fantasy Island episode "A Very Strange Affair; The Sailor", Peter Graves plays a portrayal of the Flying Dutchman in the hopes of breaking his curse by meeting someone who is willing to die for him.
- In 2001, Andromeda aired a first-season episode "The Mathematics of Tears", in which the Flying Dutchman figured explicitly in the plot.